Skip to main content


Dec. 16, 2019: New findings published today in Nature Communications show that the Zika virus epidemic in Latin America likely suppressed the incidence of dengue in subsequent years to aberrantly low levels. Then, dengue came roaring back.


When the Zika epidemic burned through the Americas in 2015, it was transmitted in the same areas where dengue virus was already endemic. This was not unexpected, as both viruses are genetically and antigenically similar, and they also share the same mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

But what was surprising was how quickly dengue virus faded into the background in the immediate years following the Zika outbreak. New findings from researchers at the University of Florida’s Emerging Pathogens Institute and UF’s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Department of Biology, describes how dengue was likely suppressed to abnormally low levels in Latin America in the years following the Zika epidemic. Their work explains a possible mechanism for how dengue then came roaring back in 2019.

The study, which published today in Nature Communications, was led by Rebecca Borchering while she was a postdoctoral researcher in biology at UF. It was conducted by multiple members of the Infectious Disease Dynamics lab which is led by the study’s senior author, Derek Cummings, who is a UF biology professor.

The researchers suspected that something about the immune response to Zika offered cross-protection against subsequent dengue infection. Prior work conducted by Cummings and collaborators, which published in Science, showed that individuals with dengue immunity were partially protected from the new Zika virus.

“In certain parts of Brazil, 60 to 70 percent of the population was infected with Zika within four or five months in 2015,” Borchering says. “The attack rate was extremely high. That was followed by reports in 2017 that Brazil was experiencing a very low incidence of dengue. We decided to test this more rigorously, to see if there was a relationship between Zika infection and subsequent dengue infections.”

Specifically, Cummings wondered, What if being infected with Zika offered immunity against dengue for a year or two? Temporary immunity is observed between dengue viruses so it would make sense that infection with the similar Zika virus might create the same temporary protection.

Using publicly available population-level data stretching from 1999-2017 for Brazil and from 2007-2017 for Colombia, Borchering and colleagues assembled models of dengue incidence. They used historic incidence rates of dengue to build models of dengue incidence and compare incidence in the years during and after the Zika outbreak to those before.

Borchering, now a postdoctoral research associate in the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia, says their first major finding was to establish that statistically, 2017 was an aberrantly low year for dengue in Brazil and Colombia.

Following the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016, Brazil saw 252,054 dengue cases in 2017 and 265,930 in 2018. In strong contrast, 1.6 million cases were reported in 2015.

“Dengue naturally has cycles of high and low incidence years,” Borchering says. “But even given these cycles, the observed dengue incidence was statistically very different from what you would expect given past historic data.”

When there are low amounts of dengue in a population, that means immunity is not being produced, Cummings says. “It tends to mean that in future time periods, you will have more dengue,” he adds. “There is a feedback in the system that immunity suppresses further transmission, and if you have not had a lot of immunity accumulating in the past few years, then you might be waiting for a pretty sizeable outbreak.”

To test whether immunity produced in response to Zika infections that temporarily protects individuals from dengue could explain the decline in dengue seen after the Zika outbreak, the group built simulations of dengue and Zika transmission. They examined a wide range of simulations with multiple assumptions of interactions between dengue and Zika.


“We found that these low numbers of dengue incidence in 2017 and 2018 were best explained by the simulations that had varying levels of cross-immunity built into them,” says Angkana Huang, a UF doctoral student in biology who also worked on the study. “Which supports the line of thinking that cross-immunity from Zika infections works to suppress dengue transmission in the years following a Zika outbreak.”

The simulations also suggested that periods of reduced dengue could be followed by very large epidemics of dengue, once cross-protection waned and dengue resurged. This finding of the models has unfortunately been seen in real life; many countries of the Americas have experienced record numbers of dengue cases in 2019 including 1.9 million cases reported from Brazil.

There are some limitations to the data, Borchering cautioned. “Many early Zika cases may have been misdiagnosed as dengue, due to shared symptoms, or were not recorded, because it took time to identify that Zika virus was circulating and to establish reporting protocols,” Borchering says. Second, climatological factors and changes in surveillance may affect dengue incidence and could contribute to changes seen in the last few years.

Cummings says that research is needed at the level of individuals to see how Zika and dengue immunity may affect each other, and whether having had Zika was predictive of who has a dengue infection. He expects that dengue will begin to settle back down to normal after this year, as the perturbation of Zika entering the Americas as a novel pathogen settles down.

“The big question now is, when will Zika come back?” Cummings says. “Because it almost certainly will. What we don’t know is how long Zika immunity excludes new Zika outbreaks.”

EPI Explainer: The Four Faces of Dengue

Dengue virus has four different serotypes. Becoming infected with one serotype is thought to confer life-long, or at least long-lasting, immunity against that particular type. It also confers temporary immunity against the three other serotypes. However, after a few years, people are at increased risk of becoming severely ill if they become infected with a different serotype after their initial infection. Because Zika is a genetically similar virus to dengue, many researchers have hypothesized that immunity to Zika virus may follow a similar pattern to dengue and may confer temporary immunity to dengue infection for a year or two; but it may also possibly place people at risk after that time.


The work was conducted by researchers at UF (Rebecca Borchering, Angkana Huang, Diana Rojas, Leah Katzelnick, Silvio Martinez, Greg King, Stephanie Cinkovich and Derek Cummings), Johns Hopkins University  (Luis Mier-y-Teran-Romero, Justin Lessler), and the University of California-San Francisco (Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer).

Creator Credits

Written by DeLene Beeland

Top photo: This is a digitally colorized transmission electron microscopic image of Zika virus, which is a member of the family, Flaviviridae. Virus particles, colored blue, are 40nm in diameter, with an outer envelope, and an inner dense coreand credits here

Chart: Figure 11 from the published paper, courtesy of the authors, shows the different assumptions programmed into various simulations. Panels I-L best match the "trough" in observed dengue cases following the Zika epidemic, when cross-immunity may have temporarily provided an unusually large degree of protection against dengue.


Read More

Read Derek Cummings, Ph.D. bio here.

Read Impacts of Zika emergence in Latin America on endemic dengue transmission here (open access).


豆奶短视频2.2.3最新版下载 聚盒子app 亚洲 春色 古典 小说 自拍 亚洲乱图区欧美 偷拍 小草在线视频观看免费观看下载 s8网站加密进入路线 年轻人都看视频 性夜夜春夜夜爽 番茄直播 抖音看片 皮猴5.0下载 芒果视频app污黄下载安装 日本人做真爱高清视频 国语精品自产拍在线观看 日本罕见TS人妖AV观看 新67194免费入口 汤姆影院在线网址入口1003汤姆影院在线网址入口 001ttt新网站 蜜桔app在线安装ios 富二代app成版人抖音免费 磁力天堂 向日葵视频污版 中文字幕乱码视频32 欧美熟妇videossexo hd 强奸电影大全 98综合图区亚洲偷自拍 H网站 猛虎视频下载污版app 中文青草免费精品 大秀直播频道 亚洲AV优女天堂 和红猫大本营一样的网站 琳琅网站在线观看免费高清 d2天堂短视频在线观看 XVIDEOS最新破解版 两个人 视频 免费 苍井空免费Av片在线观看 99re6热线在线观看 苍井空在线Av播放 初学生裸体视频在线观看 哈哈操 ta12app 蜜柚app免费下载安装 麻豆传媒在线看 汅动漫在线观看全集免费 大桥未久紧身裙女教师在线看 尻屄视频 豆奶短视频app污污下载 《大胸护士》在线观看 久99久视频免费观看视频 人妻斩村上凉子 麻豆国产第一集在线播放 8x8x海外华人免费纹身 久热久精久品这里在线观看 丝瓜app视频污版免费 红杏视频污 大秀直播频道 呦女精品 六六影视全中文理论片 汤姆电影免费视频 69公社 爱做网站图片 虎头鹰视频 小草观看免费播放 茄子短视频app最新版下载安装 浅浅下载app免费下载污 善良的小峓子2 韩国三级 免费可以看污 丝瓜视频下载APP 跨种族黑人Vs大陆中国妞 久草免费视频 四虎影院2019 爱做网站图片 小草手机在线 茄子视频成人蜜柚 s8视频网 2828电影 三七片 青青河边草高清免费版 色噜噜噜亚洲视频在线播放 黄瓜直播 香蕉视频视频禁止18 开车软件污免费大全 轮奸电影 久热久精久品这里在线观看 青青河边草免费观看 d2天堂在线观看 年轻的母亲6免费完整的相关视频 人人揉揉香蕉大免费 秋葵视频无限次数APP下载 波多野结衣无码电影 林海导航烈火动漫 什么软件可以看污污还是免费的 经典亚洲女厕所偷拍 最近更新在线播放 百媚下载 暖暖视频大全高清免费动漫 宅女午夜福利免费视频 swag里面的弯弯 9悠悠免费 被讨厌的公夜袭在线观看 夫妇野外交换HD高清版 高清无码爆乳潮喷在线观看 114三级APP不卡 老司机福利ae精品视频 小草免费观看 视频 爱情岛亚洲品质 动漫黄在线观看免费 给他们尝尝你得到味道 联合早报中文网_南略网 小肉饼可以让我尝一下 秋葵视频安卓二维码 风流少妇野外精品视频 妈今天就是你的女人了长篇 色噜噜噜亚洲视频在线播放 香蕉视频视频禁止18 色噜噜噜亚洲视频在线播放 麻豆传媒的官网是多少 芭乐视频黄 秋葵app下载官网 丝瓜视频下载APP 猫咪app官网 男生都知道的免费网站 99re6热线在线观看 柠檬TV f2富二代app就是这么嗨下载 涩播视频 亚洲AV优女天堂 秋葵视频污最新版 水果视频下载免费安装视频 羞羞漫画在线观看 小苹果app下载污yy 中国videoses18 8x8x海外华人免费纹身 色yeye 高清无码视频 老子在线手机观看视频播放 女保险员肉色丝袜 蘑菇2app下载 女性裸体撤尿高清视频 亚洲手机在线人成网站 龙猫资源网 小草免费视频免费观看 成抖音年人富二代 蜜柚视频污 皮皮龟电视剧在最线观看 初恋直播下载并安装 斗罗大陆小舞喷水视频 亚洲动漫国产欧美在线高清 美女禁区 亚洲乱图区欧美 偷拍 高清情侣国语自产拍 小可爱官网直播下载 宅男天堂网站在线观看 精品国内在视频线2019 500导航精品视频导航 青青青青久在线视频免费观看 千千影院 四虎影视app ios 小草在线观看播放免费 免费直播网站 -app下载 爱情岛亚洲品质 2828在线影视网线观看 抖音看片 男女性爱免费视频 一本久道视频无线视频 丝瓜在线观看视频免费下载 青青河边草高清免费版 456.ty 交换的一天 丝瓜app官方网 丝瓜视频最新版下载 d2天堂在线 年轻的母亲5视频线在线观 欧美高清vjcossexo 杏视频 11K手机影院三级 躲雨湿透的妩媚中文字幕 午夜福利影院 我要看视频直播 丁字裤美女 爱情岛爱情亚洲品质 风骚少妇 四虎2019最新免费观看 日本撒尿大合集 在线 台湾swag高清在线观看 4tube4在线观看 最近更新在线播放 苍井空免费Av片在线观看 国产精品夜色视频 99热在线只要精品 今晚老师让你桶个够 视频 一进一出抽搐免费观看gⅰf 6080yy手机理论中文字幕 芭乐视频黄 91香蕉app官网 2020国产国产精华视频 小草手机在线 离婚与儿子做 妈妈今天是你的人视频 1313电影 男女性爱免费视频 九九视频在线观看视频6 丝瓜视频.污视频app在线下载 我要看A片 中国 Chinese 军人 GV 69re草莓 app下载 蘑菇2app下载 鬼逝绝叫痉挛地狱n0531 开车120秒免费视频 倩影app免费下载安装 亚洲 春色 古典 小说 自拍 金发美女大战黑大长吊 狱火重生手机在线观看 善良的小峓子2 草莓视频丝瓜视频看污 成都黑帽门网站 奇奇影院 污污的视频试看120秒 456亚洲影院在线观看 2020学生视频精品小14萝视频 5分钟听了会湿的声音 手机在线观看 最新国产自产拍视频在线观看 慢猫软件app下载 古装性艳史电影在线观看 24个聚合直播平台 乱伦电影 小草观看免费播放 桔子直播app下载安装 久久热国产视频 工口里番全彩无肉码3d 农村性工作者十元店 55爱网 西元性自由免费XXX swag交换圣诞礼物小猫咪 ww.5app最新网 抖阴小视频 欧美13一14sexvideo 抽搐一进一出gif试视频 向日葵视频下载app下载安卓免费 99热在线只要精品 性福宝app 亚洲,欧美,国产,日韩,综合 d2天堂在线 性夜夜春夜夜爽 动漫黄在线观看免费 麻豆剧情AV在线看 二级黄色片 香蕉视频视频禁止18 光根电影院yy11111免费 中文 视频 video one yy1111 香蕉女郎在线观看 欧美熟妇videossexo hd 免费高清AV无码专区 又色又黄又爽又劲爆的黄片 芭乐app-草莓app黄下 亚洲手机在线人成网站 绝望的主妇 在线观看 s8视频app下载页加密路线 富二代app成版人抖音免费 富二代app官网安卓免费下载 销魂美女图库 豆奶视频下载安装最新版下载 老陈李青免费阅读完整 9uu社区有你!有我足矣 葵つかさ中文字幕在线观看 芭乐成视频人app免费下载 爱情岛爱情亚洲品质 久草视频在线播放 秋葵男人的加油站女人的美容院污 人妻献身系列在线阅读 一射到底 红杏视频污 圣女直播免费观看 超pen个人视频97 麻豆影视在线观看 十三至十五的一次开处免费 年轻的嫂子 小草免费视频观看播放 视频 亚洲 欧美 自拍 另类 在线 女生越说痛男生越要塞免费 app 久热久精久品这里在线观看 毛色毛片免费观看 日本AV国产AV欧美AV 67idcon免费视频网站 91香蕉app官网 百媚下载 世界最大级黑人中出佳苗 ID002 太极3:巅峰在望 在线观看 欧美在线videosexo18 乱子伦一级在线观看 jessica jane中国女人 宅男天堂网站在线观看 a无限资源无限看 试看120秒小视频动态图 魔道香炉篇完整篇 漫画 D高清AV日本一区二区三区 红颜app 暖暖视频大全高清免费动漫 两个人的视频全免费直播 柠檬TV 护士樱井莉亚在线观看 purhub安卓下载 向日葵下载污app免费 久久热国产视频 小苹果app下载污yy 蜜柚视频污 夫妇野外交换HD高清版 叶子电影免费高清 富二代app成版人抖音免费 日本大便喷水排泄网站 光根电影院yy11111免费 德华影院 木瓜直播视频 暖暖免费视频网 红颜app 豆奶视频在线观看破解 汅动漫在线观看全集免费 男女同房做爰爽视频 蜜柚3视频app直播下载 玉米视频下载安装v2.9.8.6 使劲操 男女做污污的事情免费 玉米视频下载安装v2.9.8.6 樱桃视频官网在线观看 桔子直播app下载安装 玖玖爱在线视频精品免费观看 汅动漫在线观看全集免费 玉蒲团在线观看伦理 国产美女主播直播全集 超污的视频 少白洁160全集完结 中国女人freexXXXXXXXXXX 日本无码 98683.C.C 男生和女生那个对那个,免费可以看的 王动视频在线播放 天天爽 三上悠亚出差上司在线观看 风流少妇野外精品视频 swag视频网站网在线 ID002 免费污软件 中文青草免费精品 宅男天堂网站在线观看 黄鱼fish视频 ta12app 亚洲欧美偷拍类另图在线播放 草莓视频丝瓜视频看污 最近更新在线播放 少白洁160全集完结 免费观看男女性高视频 做爱网 坐潜入航空学校女厕偷窥 演示裸体瑜伽在线播放 午夜福利影院 小草在线观看网 苍井空在线Av播放 99久久爱re6热精品首页 亚洲手机在线人成网站 苍井空免费Av片在线观看 向日葵污版app在线观看 妈妈的朋友1 添阴 国产喷水女同 thunder 红颜app 麻豆传媒映画最新入口网址 yy6090私人理论 免费观看污色的视频 两个人 视频 免费 父爱如山动漫免费第一季1 依恋直播app下载污 2828在线影视网线观看 男人和女人做个性视频 456.ty 小蜜桔破解版下载 宅女午夜福利免费视频 橙子直播下载 500篇短篇合免费阅读 那些污污的视频在线观看 猫咪app官网 白白色发布嫩草影院 嘿嘿漫画阅读漫画在线 试看2分钟做受小视频 美女大便POOPING 小草电影网在线观看 年轻女教师6在线播放 妈妈的朋友1 国产91熟女人妻在线观看 水果视频app黄在线观看 丝瓜视频app免费下载 草莓视频app下载最新版污 十大免费最污的app下载免费 微杏 ta12App 51vv视频草莓社区 香蕉女郎在线观看 亚洲AV国产AV资源 在线看隔壁放荡人妻藤浦 亚洲AV优女天堂 花姬直播在线观看 人人揉揉香蕉大免费 宝贝你的奶可真大给我吃 久久国产 菠萝菠视频app汅免费观看 色yeye高清在线视频 什么软件可以看污污还是免费的 女性裸体撤尿高清视频 午夜福利影院 蜜柚污版app jessicajames日本动漫 伦最新理在线火豆网 微杏 亚洲人成AV网站 年轻的妈妈中文字线观高清4多鱼网 小草免费视频观看播放 视频 水果视频app新版官网下载ios ta12App 丝瓜视频app免费下载 猪蜜蜜免费观看在线电视剧 享爱直播 暖暖视频在线观看免费最新 秋葵app官方下载网址 秘密教学25薇娅 可乐视频在线播放手机 三人性交 爱你爱你直播在线观看 开车120秒免费视频 八戒私人院影www 2020学生视频精品小14萝视频 ios的草莓视频在线观看 中文字幕乱码视频32 丝瓜视频.污视频app在线下载 波多野结衣电影 男人和女人做个性视频 千千影院 老湿机69福利区 男生的机插曲女人APP软件下载安装 大奶牛app 国产剧情吴梦梦在线观看 是羊大一点还是狗大一点 免费91成版人抖音app官网 花心社区ios污 皮猴5.0下载 强 视频直播 精品无吗国产自在现线 荡乱绝顶3p在线观看 kkxkkx 农村性工作者十元店 年轻人的免费影院 豆奶视频在线观看破解 在线精品视频 黑粗大硬长爽 猛 本色视频软件下载 百度网盘 奶茶视频appp 下载有容乃大,菠萝视频 年轻的母亲5视频线在线观 免费人成视频19674不收费 7m分类凹凸精品大全 爱情岛论坛首页 千层浪app破解版在线下载 131美女视频黄的免费 男生都知道的免费网站 向日葵视频下载app视频免费 年轻的母亲6免费完整的相关视频 china中国人自拍 小草在线最新视频 奶茶视频appp 下载有容乃大,菠萝视频 成都黑帽门网站 七妹视频在线观看在线播放 99久久爱re6热精品首页 05后早恋互摸热吻污污视频 f2富二代抖音app污短视频 日本AV免费APP下载 麻豆传媒视频免费破解观看 9uu有你有我足矣最多播放 f2d2富二代官网下载 杏视频 中文字幕乱码视频32 名优馆app手机下载官网安卓 拔擦拔擦永久华人免费 秋葵下载app最新版免费 ae86老司机机福利入口 水果视频下载免费安装视频 china中国人自拍 貔貅直播app下载 香蕉app视频污版在线 妈妈的朋友在观看视频 a无限资源无限看 swag台湾官网怎么进入 名优馆app手机下载官网安卓 和红猫大本营一样的网站 XX 日本XX免费完整网站 猛虎视频app下载 秋葵视频安卓版下载网址大全 蜜桔2视频app下载官网 台湾swagger 韩国艺人1313全集视频 20709在线 青娱乐视频 456.ty 9090xoxo在线观看 女人与公拘交的视频www 波多野结衣教师系列6 5g影院资讯在线年龄确认18 久久国产 免费女人光着全身直播 啊 啊下面好大污视频 杏视频 9悠悠免费 成都舞厅视频 哈哈操 轮奸电影 女子张腿男子桶视频6免费 猛虎视频app下载 女朋友的妈妈2中语观看线观高清1兔费线韩国好 caomeiapp 青青河边草免费观看 猪蜜蜜免费观看在线电视剧 大桥未久紧身裙女教师在线看 污视频app污网站下载 app 考拉直播黄 四虎影院2019 花秀神器为什么不能用了 涩播视频 银杏APP 蜜桔app在线安装ios 少白洁160全集完结 水果视频app黄在线观看 老司机福利ae精品视频 秘密教学 40集 抖阴短视频ios版 亚洲色图偷拍自拍 冲田杏梨作品在线观看呢 樱桃视屏入口视频 名优馆java官方网站服务你的渴望 初恋app如何免费 H网站 青青河边草免费观看 s8视频app下载页加密路线 泷泽萝拉AV教师在线观看